By R. Skousen
1. Structuralist as opposed to Analogical Descriptions ONE vital goal of this publication is to match thoroughly dif ferent ways to describing language. the 1st of those techniques, usually referred to as stnlctllralist, is the conventional technique for describing habit. Its equipment are present in many diversified fields - from organic taxonomy to literary feedback. A structuralist description will be generally characterised as a procedure of type. the elemental query structuralist description makes an attempt to respond to is how a common contextual area will be partitioned. for every context within the partition, a rule is outlined. the rule of thumb both specifies the habit of that context or (as in a taxonomy) assigns a reputation to that context. Structuralists have implicitly assumed that descriptions of habit will not be merely be right, yet also needs to reduce the variety of principles and allow in simple terms the easiest attainable contextual standards. It seems that those intuitive notions can truly be derived from extra basic statements concerning the uncertainty of rule structures. regularly, linguistic analyses were in line with the concept a language is a method of principles. Saussure, after all, is celebrated as an early proponent of linguistic structuralism, as exemplified by means of his characterization of language as "a self-contained entire and precept of category" (Saussure 1966:9). but linguistic structuralism didn't originate with Saussure - nor did it finish with "American structuralism".
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Extra resources for Analogical Modeling of Language
R \ I I \. \ e,r , ... \ \ \ .... \ I \ I 0 \ I ' I \ I ' 0 I \ _-....... / -// I I r ................ r --- (which contains -1-) '" / / / I I I I I I I I 34 ANALOGICAL MODELING OF LANGUAGE We can automatically determine the heterogeneity of the general supracontext (---) simply because it contains a heterogeneous supracontext (-1-). In other words, having determined that a supracontext is heterogeneous, any more general supracontext containing that supra context will also be heterogeneous.
The problem of variable selection results in part from a computational limit on the number of variables. If a given context has n variables, the number of supracontexts that must be considered is 2n , an exponential function of 11. In addition, the running time for the computer program that determines the analogical set is also a function of 2n. Because of memory limitations (of 640 KB) on the computer used for calculating the analogical sets for this book, the maximum number of variables that could be specified was about eleven or twelve (depending on the number of occurrences in the data set itself).
Typical examples include the following: habitual I habitually hamburger I hamburgers Harris's / Harrison humanism / humanistic hypotheses I hypothesis I hypothesized Another general principle used in selecting the variables is the principle of proximity: we select those variables that are closest to the variable whose outcome we are trying to predict. For example, when trying to predict the spelling of the initial Ih/, we do not specify the third vowel in a word as a variable without also specifying the first two vowels in the word (since these vowels are closer to the initial Ih/).