An Introduction to Measurements using Strain Gages by Karl Hoffmann

By Karl Hoffmann

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An equally large force working in the opposite direction must be present to stop the bar shown in Fig. 2-1 from being pushed away. 'The opposing force is often not recognizable, because it is applied by the fastenings or supporting parts. g. in the hawser between a tug and a ship. Here the tug's tensile force is counteracted by the force from the water current. 2-1) Tensile stresses are positive. Compressive stresses are negative. Earlier units of mechanical stress were kp/mm² in mechanical engineering and kp/cm² in civil engineering.

The purpose of Guideline 2635, which was prepared and published by the VDI/VDE Gesellschaft Mess- und Regelungstechnik, was to ease this situation and encourage a universal measurement method [2-1]. Work on international adaptation is in progress. An explanation of the aim and the content of the guideline is given in [3-1]. Data in the form of data sheets is enclosed in the package with every strain gage. 3 (Technical Data). Since interference effects do not all occur simultaneously, one does not need to assess all the characteristics, but rather only those relating to the application conditions.

Hopefully, a universal notation will prevail. In this book only the designation N/mm² will be used for numbers denoting stress. 2 Shear stress With normal stress the tensile and compressive forces, which occur in opposite directions, always act on the same axis. They try to pull the material apart or to press it together, depending on whether they are oriented going away from one another or towards one 2 Terms and units 23 another. Shear stresses are principally a different type of stress. To imagine their formation, one must think of two forces F1 and F2 which act in opposite directions, but with a small distance between them, as they would be produced by the cutting edges of a pair of scissors.

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