Alternative Tracks: The Constitution of American Industrial by Gerald Berk

By Gerald Berk

Alternative Tracks offers a singular interpretation of industrialization and political improvement within the usa. targeting the severe case of railroads, Gerald Berk exhibits that substitute varieties of financial association and governmental legislation existed within the past due 19th century. Constitutional offerings, now not technological imperatives or monetary pursuits, decided the end result within the 20th century: a centralized regulated in line with liberal ideas of redistribution. Alternative Tracks finds a nineteenth-century rival to this political economy―an both effective and extra democratic approach of nearby railroads regulated in accordance with republican principles.

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In-pu). Those who are absent on official business will be marked down above. 1). The second time, sentence them (chueh) to seven strokes. The third time, seventeen strokes. After that, if they d o not change the way in which they conduct official affairs (kou-ung),130 let them be dismissed from office. In the 1st moon of the'28th year of the Chih-yuan reign period [I February-1 March 12911, the regional secretariats (~~singshangshu-shenef1 sent a communiqu; ( r m ) to the Shang-shu-sheng'J2 [which stated]: Let this be examined.

1b6Pu-lan-hsi was such a distinctly Mongolian institution without Chinese analogues that it in itself deserves emphasis as an example of the continuation of purely Mongolian social practices in Yuan times. Presumably, a system of returning stray animals to their owners developed among Mongolian nomads of earlier times, and the system, when introduced into China, was simply extended to other types of properties. 1b7 Such slaves The Ta-lu-hua-ch'ih/E~~rl~ History 59 were to be fed from government granaries while on the job.

1'5 Envoys should go to the same [tsung-kuan-]/iu to hand them over. There should be no concealment [of pu-lan-hst]. rim ) s . vies (ch'u-shib jen-yam) respectfully carrying an imperial decree (~heng-chih)to register (shiia-hm] the pu-[an-hi population have not directly gone through the authorities (yu-ssu). [Unauthorized people] on their own authority (i-mien) in an unrestrained way (tzu-I] go i u \ ~ nto t h e villages (hsia-ts'un), and d o not inquire whether [thepu-fanh i people] were originally slaves ( c h i i .

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