By Shadpour E. Mallakpour, George B. Butler (auth.), Bill M. Culbertson, James E. McGrath (eds.)
"Polymer technological know-how and Engineering: demanding situations, wishes, and Opportunities," a document issued in 1981 through the nationwide learn Council's advert hoc Panel on Polymer technological know-how and Engineering offers abundant help for the pressing desire of elevated dedication to simple stories on polymers. wishes and possibilities, pointed out within the Panel's checklist, incorporated polymerization equipment, strong point polymers, excessive functionality fabrics, and in situ (reaction injection molding) polymerization for direct conversion of monomers/oligomers to valuable shapes. essentially, in these kind of and a number of other components, advances in polymer synthesis are wanted. no matter if one takes a glance on the commodity or uniqueness polymers quarter or considers parts of starting to be wishes, similar to polymers for the automobile, aerospace, electronics, communications, separations, packaging, biomedical, etc., advances in polymer synthesis are wanted. Polymeric fabrics, as they're continually being changed and more suitable, fine-tuned for present and extra wishes, and extra simply followed by means of and the general public, can have a enormously increasing effect on way of life. besides the fact that, loss of long term help of significant measurement for uncomplicated learn on all points of polymer chemistry and engineering, with specific emphasis on making wanted advances in polymer synthesis, might good stunt the expansion of excessive techn.ology in our kingdom. increasing this proposal, loss of realization to simple learn on polymer synthesis may aid foster or insure that we will not have fabrics with functionality profiles to fulfill standards of rising applied sciences and nationwide wishes, in a fairly monetary and well timed fashion.
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For the former, Waters columns packed with microstyragel (2 x 100 ° 500 A) ° were used with chloroform as eluant; detection was accomplished by A, means of a refractometer or a UV detector (254 nm). Vapor pressure osmometry molecular weight determinations were performed using Hewlett-Packard 302 BVPO, with carbon tetrachloride as solvent. Solu- tions of 3,6,8-trimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines (non-polymerizable benzoxazines), at 37°C, were used to standardize the instrument. Polymerization In The Presence Of Phenols As initiator we have employed 2,4-ditert-butylphenol, which, as we have demonstrated above, is highly reactive towards 3,6,8-trimethyl-3,4-dihydro2H-1,3-benzoxazine ("non-polymerizable benzoxazine").
Conditions and Table 2. Polyesters Formed from 2,5-Furan Dicarboxylic Acid and an Aliphatic Acid Melting Point of Diol Polyester, °C ethylene glycol 215-225 trimethylene glycol 115-120 tetramethylene glycol 163-165 hexamethylene glycol 143-146 techniques were varied and optimized for the catalyzed melt-transesterifica2 tion of dimethyl 2,5-furan dicarboxylate and ethylene glycol. The effects of 17 different catalysts were studied 3 in the preparation of this same polymer. A higher temperature melt-transesterification was carried out at 290°C, under nitrogen, but the effect of increased tempera4 ture was not reported.
A higher temperature melt-transesterification was carried out at 290°C, under nitrogen, but the effect of increased tempera4 ture was not reported. The use of 2,4-furan dicarboxylic acid derivatives in polyester synthesis was reported acid, i, 5 in 1958. 5 torr), polyesters were formed. Lead oxide was generally used as the catalyst in these reactions. Little information or characterization was given concerning polyesters prepared using 3. It was reported that when ethylene glycol was the corre- sponding diol, polyesters incorporating 4 were more discolored than those using~.