A Theory of Universals: Volume 2: Universals and Scientific by D. M. Armstrong

By D. M. Armstrong

It is a research, in volumes, of 1 of the longest-standing philosophical difficulties: the matter of universals. In quantity I David Armstrong surveys and criticizes the most techniques and recommendations to the issues which have been canvassed, rejecting a few of the kinds of nominalism and 'Platonic' realism. In quantity II he develops a huge thought of his personal, an target thought of universals established no longer on linguistic conventions, yet at the real and strength findings of traditional technology. He hence reconciles a realism approximately traits and family with an empiricist epistemology. the speculation permits, too, for a powerful clarification of traditional legislation as family among those universals.

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Extra resources for A Theory of Universals: Volume 2: Universals and Scientific Realism (v. 2)

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41 Expulsion This was however a purely classical theory, and so the baton passed to Arnold Sommerfeld, a German theoretical physicist, who tried to extend Drude’s results (Drude had sadly committed suicide in 1906). Sommerfeld had an extraordinary legacy in physics with six of his students going on to win Nobel Prizes. Those who worked under him and are mentioned in this book include Fro ¨hlich, Heisenberg, Heitler, London, and Pauli. ’ In 1927, Sommerfeld used results developed by Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, describing the statistical properties of electrons in detail (and known as Fermi–Dirac statistics), to formulate a theory for the electrical transport in a metal based on Drude’s assumptions.

It was clear that a limiting factor was the impurity content of the metal and so Onnes chose to focus on mercury, a liquid metal, which could be repeatedly distilled to make it as pure as possible. To make wires of mercury, his technician filed very fine U-shape glass capillaries and then carefully froze them. The capillaries had electrodes at either end so it was possible to pass an electrical current through them and follow the resistance at various temperatures. These samples were cooled using Onnes’ newly discovered liquid helium, allowing him to reach much lower temperatures than Dewar could obtain.

The interference between electron waves passing through two slits produces the famous diffraction pattern observed in the ‘two-slit experiment’, the focus of many of the early discussions about quantum mechanics. When two waves have the same phase, they can combine constructively. When the two waves have opposite phase, they combine destructively (see Figure 11). 11. Two waves combine (top) with the same phase, resulting in constructive interference, or (bottom) with opposite phase, resulting in destructive interference 44 As we’ve discussed, electrons in a superconducting wire loop can be made to go round and round for ever.

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